Women Health Care


“The female life cycle, from childhood through the fertile years, pregnancy and childbirth, the menopausal years, and beyond, includes many unique challenges that need attention in the interests of good health,” says Dr. Beverly R. Goode.

The most common female problems include
Dysmenorrhoea (painful menses), premenstrual tension, tumours in the uterus and ovaries, breast tumours, leucorrhoea (white discharge), amenorrhoea (absence of menses), irregular periods, lack of sexual drive, dryness of the vagina, menopausal syndrome, etc.

Abnormal uterine bleeding disorders

Most common bleeding disorders include,
Menorrhagia      (or) Prolonged or excessive bleeding at regular intervals
Metrorrhagia         (or) Irregular, frequent uterine bleeding of varying amounts but not excessive
Menometrorrhagia(or) Prolonged or excessive bleeding at irregular intervals
Polymenorrhea     (or) Regular bleeds at intervals of less than 21 days
Oligomenorrhea   (or) Bleeding at intervals greater than every 35 days
Amenorrhea         (or) No uterine bleeding for at least 6 months
Intermenstrual     (or) Uterine bleeding between regular cycles

Abnormal vaginal bleeding has many possible causes. By itself, it does not necessarily indicate a serious condition. Heavy vaginal bleeding or bleeding that occurs before 12 weeks may mean a serious problem, including an ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage. Ovulation can cause mid-cycle bleeding. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormone imbalance that interferes with normal ovulation and can cause abnormal bleeding. Medicines, such as birth control pills, sometimes cause abnormal vaginal bleeding. You may have minor bleeding between periods during the first few months if you have recently started using birth control pills. You also may have bleeding if you do not take your pills at a regular time each day. An intrauterine device (IUD) also may increase your chances of spotting or heavy periods. Infection of the pelvic organs (vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries) may cause vaginal bleeding, especially after intercourse or douching. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are often the cause of infections. Exposure to sexually transmitted infections can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which causes inflammation or infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries and can cause abnormal bleeding. Other less common causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding that may be more serious include sexual abuse. An object in the vagina. Uterine fibroids. Structural problems, such as
urethral prolapse or polyps. Cancer of the cervix, uterus, ovaries, or vagina Extreme emotional stress and excessive exercise But excessive exercise more frequently causes an absence of menstruation (amenorrhea). Other diseases, such as hyperthyroidism or diabetes, can also cause heavy bleeding. Bleeding during the first few weeks after delivery (postpartum) or after an abortion may occur because the uterus has not contracted to its prepregnancy size or because foetal tissue remains in the uterus (retained products of conception). If you are age 40 or older, abnormal vaginal bleeding may mean that you are entering perimenopause. In a woman who has not had a menstrual period for 12 months,vaginal bleeding is always abnormal and should be discussed with your doctor.
Menopausal syndrome
The term “menopause” denotes the final cessation of menstruation, either as a normal part of aging or as the result of surgical removal of both ovaries. It is a gradual process over a 2- to 5-year period during which a woman adjusts to a diminishing and then absent menstrual flow and various physiologic changes that may be associated, such as hot flushes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness. Various symptoms that come in association with this are termed “menopausal syndrome. For Indian women, the average age at menopause is 51 years. Premature menopause is defined as ovarian failure and menstrual cessation before age 40; this often has a genetic or autoimmune basis. Surgical menopause due to bilateral oophorectomy (removal of the ovary) is common and can cause more severe symptoms owing to the sudden rapid drop in sex hormone levels. There is no objective evidence that cessation of ovarian function is associated with severe emotional disturbance or personality changes. However, mood changes towards depression and anxiety can occur at this time. Furthermore, the time of menopause often coincides with other major life changes, such as the departure of children from the home, a midlife identity crisis, or divorce. These events, coupled with a sense of the loss of youth, may exacerbate the symptoms of menopause and cause psychological distress.

Sexual dysfunction / femeninity

The most common problems related to sexual dysfunction in women include:
Inhibited sexual desire:
this involves a lack of sexual desire or interest in sex. Many factors can contribute to a lack of desire, including hormonal changes, medical conditions and treatments (for example, cancer and chemotherapy), depression, pregnancy, stress, and fatigue. Boredom with regular sexual routines also may contribute to a lack of enthusiasm for sex, as can lifestyle factors, such as careers and the care of children. Inability to become aroused.
For women, the inability to become physically aroused during sexual activity often involves insufficient vaginal lubrication. The inability to become aroused may also be related to anxiety or inadequate stimulation. In addition, researchers are investigating how blood flow problems affecting the vagina and clitoris may contribute to arousal problems.

Lack of orgasm (anorgasmia)
This is the absence of sexual climax (orgasm). It can be caused by a woman’s sexual inhibition, inexperience, lack of knowledge, and psychological factors such as guilt, anxiety, or a past sexual trauma or abuse. Other factors contributing to anorexia include insufficient stimulation, certain medications, and chronic diseases.

Painful intercourse: 
Pain during intercourse can be caused by a number of problems, including endometriosis, a pelvic mass, ovarian cysts, vaginitis, poor lubrication, the presence of scar tissue from surgery, or a sexually transmitted disease. A condition called
vaginismus is a painful, involuntary spasm of the muscles that surround the vaginal entrance. It may occur in women who fear that penetration will be painful and also may stem from a sexual phobia or from a previous traumatic or painful experience.